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Additional info for Astrophysics,Part C, Radio Observations (Methods of Experimental Physics)
The fluctuations caused by these common elements will be cancelled by the switching process, leaving only the contribution from the very small or distant cells which do not lie within both beams. An example of the improvement obtained by this technique is shown in Fig. ’ Note that even in clear weather there is an improvement in the noise by a factor of two using the dual beam (DB) technique over the single beam (SB) switched versus a load. An additional refinement of the dual-beam technique involves positioning the two beams alternately on the source.
5. A polarization observation of Hydra A at a wavelength of I 1 cm made with thc 64-m (210-ft) telescope at Parkes. Both the switched record (between two orthogonal beams. and the total power record of the signal in one beam are shown. 14 4. SINGLE-ANTENNA OBSERVATIONS thousand degrees, and thus the noise fluctuations in the receiver will be increased by this amount. There is no way to remove this effect, but because it is identical to the receiver noise the fluctuations can always be reduced to the required level by sufficiently long integration times.
The frequencies, intensities, and widths of spectral lines are discussed in detail in subsequent sections. 2. Special Equipment Requirements for Spectral-Line Work Important areas for instrumental development were apparent from early observations of HI. For the antenna system an important requirement was precise pointing and tracking of the source during lengthy integrations. This led to the construction of the present sophisticated antenna systems which are completely computer controlled. , to be programmed into every observation.