Astrophysics of Planet Formation by Philip J. Armitage

By Philip J. Armitage

The learn of planet formation has been revolutionized by way of fresh observational breakthroughs, that have allowed the detection and characterization of extrasolar planets, the imaging of protoplanetary disks, and the invention of the sunlight System's Kuiper Belt. Written for starting graduate scholars, this textbook offers a easy figuring out of the astrophysical techniques that form the formation of planetary platforms. It starts off through describing the constitution and evolution of protoplanetary disks, strikes directly to the formation of planetesimals, terrestrial and gasoline monstrous planets, and concludes by way of surveying new theoretical rules for the early evolution of planetary structures. overlaying all stages of planet formation - from protoplanetary disks to the dynamical evolution of planetary platforms - this creation could be understood by way of readers with backgrounds in planetary technology, observational and theoretical astronomy. It highlights the actual ideas underlying planet formation and the components the place extra study and new observations are wanted.

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In practice, simultaneous monitoring of ∼ 108 stars in the Galactic bulge results in detection of ≈ 500 lensing events by disk stars every year. Light curves in which a single disk star lenses a background star are smooth, symmetric about the peak, and magnify the source achromatically. If the proper motion of the lens relative to that of the source is µ, the characteristic time scale of the lensing event is tE = θE /µ. For events toward the Galactic bulge this time scale is about a month, scaling with √ the lens mass as M∗ .

The top surface of the disk), so the limits on the integral are −π/2 < φ ≤ π/2 0 < θ < sin−1 Substituting d R∗ . 26) 0 −π/2 which evaluates to,  F = I∗ sin−1 R∗ r R∗ r − 1− R∗ r 2  . g. Rybicki & Lightman, 1979). Equating F to the 4 one-sided disk emission σ Tdisk we obtain a radial temperature profile   4 2 R∗  1 Tdisk R∗ R∗ 1− = sin−1 − . 28) T∗ π r r r Integrating over radii, we obtain the total disk luminosity, Ldisk = 2 × ∞ R∗ 4 2πrσ Tdisk dr 1 = L∗ . 29) 4 We conclude that a flat passive disk extending all the way to the stellar equator intercepts a quarter of the stellar flux.

31) Assuming vertical isothermality, the aspect ratio given by Eq. 32) r and we predict that the disk ought to flare modestly to larger radii. If the disk does flare then the outer regions intercept a larger fraction of stellar photons, leading to a higher temperature. As a consequence, a temperature profile Tdisk ∝ r −3/4 is probably the steepest profile we would expect to obtain for a passive disk. 2 Flared disks The next step in sophistication is to consider a flared disk. If at cylindrical distance r from the star the disk absorbs stellar radiation at a height hp above the mid-plane, the disk is described as flared if the ratio hp /r is an increasing function of radius.

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