By Bhaskar Vira, Roger Jeffery (eds.)
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1 Panchayati Raj Forests are considered to be a public resource, controlled and managed directly by the state in the name of the people. People participate at state level through democratic means, but there has been no effective democratic participation at the local level, though people’s representatives were elected in gram (village) or district panchayats. More effective measures to strengthen local governments were initiated in the early 1990s and negotiation of actual procedures, and their implementation, is now an ongoing political process.
Differences between professional nature conservation organisations and local people are apparent in terms of objectives, views and Community-based Resource Management 41 practices. The first group wants to protect ‘ecosystems’ (forests, wetlands and savannah) as a whole, while local people are more interested in specific resources relevant for fulfilling human needs. In the context of this discussion we would like to take a closer look at a Philippine case and a Cameroonian case in which the aforementioned levels interact within projects.
They will please the officials and the visiting foreign donor representatives by following some of the formal agreements, while continuing their informal activities. Improvements in the resource base are thus minimal. As time goes by, so does the project – says our negative academic. 2 The ‘positive practitioner’s’ view of the future He/she disagrees with the negative academic and argues that the project is fully aware of underlying tensions and political dimensions of participation, maintaining that a donor-sponsored project gives the space required to innovate new procedures.