By Hanns-Christian Mahler, Wim Jiskoot
Chapter 1 The serious want for strong Assays for Quantitation and Characterization of Aggregates of healing Proteins (pages 1–7): John F. wood worker, Barry Cherney and Amy S. Rosenberg
Chapter 2 Separation?Based Analytical equipment for Measuring Protein Aggregation (pages 9–36): Jun Liu, Barthelemy Demeule and Steven J. Shire
Chapter three Laser gentle Scattering?Based recommendations Used for the Characterization of Protein Therapeutics (pages 37–60): John den Engelsman, Fabian Kebbel and Patrick Garidel
Chapter four on-line Detection tools and rising ideas for Soluble Aggregates in Protein prescribed drugs (pages 61–84): Tapan ok. Das
Chapter five Analytical the way to degree Subvisible Particulates (pages 85–115): Shawn Cao, Linda Narhi, Yijia Jiang and Rahul S. Rajan
Chapter 6 Detection of noticeable debris in Parenteral items (pages 117–132): Ronald Smulders, Hans Vos and Hanns?Christian Mahler
Chapter 7 Characterization of Aggregates and debris utilizing rising ideas (pages 133–167): Hui Zhao, Manuel Diez, Atanas Koulov, Mariola Bozova, Markus Bluemel and Kurt Forrer
Chapter eight Ultraviolet Absorption Spectroscopy (pages 169–200): Reza Esfandiary and Charles Russell Middaugh
Chapter nine Fluorescence Spectroscopy to signify Protein Aggregates and debris (pages 201–226): Robert A. Poole, Andrea Hawe, Wim Jiskoot and Kevin Braeckmans
Chapter 10 Infrared Spectroscopy to represent Protein Aggregates (pages 227–248): Marco van de Weert and Lene Jorgensen
Chapter eleven Raman Microscopy for Characterization of debris (pages 249–267): Stefan Fischer, Oliver Valet and Markus Lankers
Chapter 12 Microscopic equipment for Particle Characterization in Protein prescription drugs (pages 269–302): Patrick Garidel, Andrea Herre and Werner Kliche
Chapter thirteen comparability of equipment for Soluble combination Detection and measurement Characterization (pages 303–333): John S. Philo
Chapter 14 Protein Purification and its Relation to Protein Aggregation and debris (pages 335–367): Roberto Falkenstein, Stefan Hepbildikler, Wolfgang Kuhne, Thorsten Lemm, Hans Rogl, Eva Rosenberg, Gerhard iciness, Frank Zettl and Ralf Zippelius
Chapter 15 formula improvement and its Relation to Protein Aggregation and debris (pages 369–387): Miriam Printz and Wolfgang Friess
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Additional resources for Analysis of Aggregates and Particles in Protein Pharmaceuticals
The high cross ﬂow also results in an increase in separation time and sample dilution. An excessive cross ﬂow may also lead to signiﬁcant sample loss owing to increased interaction with the membrane . For large particle separation, a lower cross ﬂow is preferred as it minimizes the loss of protein due to nonspeciﬁc adsorption onto the membrane. The channel ﬂow rate is another important experimental parameter in the ﬂow FFF method; a decrease in the channel ﬂow allows molecules to have more time to distribute into the localized laminar ﬂow regions and, therefore, improves the fractionating power.
The term protein aggregates refers to a broad spectrum of diversiﬁed self-associated states of proteins. The mechanisms of protein aggregation are quite complicated, and aggregates can form through different pathways [4,5]. Stressed conditions such as denaturants, organic solvents, high or low temperatures, agitation, freeze–thaw, cavitation, and low or high pH can cause structural alteration in proteins and result in aggregation [4–7]. In addition, chemical modiﬁcations, such as deamidation, isomerization, oxidation, fragmentation, and disulﬁde shufﬂing, have been shown to be related to protein aggregation in some cases .
The data were collected using a ﬂuorescence detector, and the size distribution of the sedimentation coefﬁcient was determined by SEDFIT using a continuous c(s) model. ANALYTICAL ULTRACENTRIFUGATION 23 was mixed with human serum, and sedimentation was monitored with a ﬂuorescence detector. 2 s is the monomer peak of the mAb. The ﬂuorescence signal of albumin was not from intrinsic ﬂuorescence, but from albumin-bound ﬂuorescent molecules, such as ﬂavins and hemoglobin oxidation products . The sedimentation coefﬁcient of the antibody in human serum, once corrected for serum density and viscosity, was very close to what is expected for an intact mAb in PBS.