By Mark Moldwin
Published through the yank Geophysical Union as a part of the Geophysical Monograph Series.
This quantity presents a finished assessment of our present observational wisdom, theoretical figuring out, and numerical power with reference to the phenomena referred to as area climate. area climate refers to stipulations at the solar and within the sun wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere which may impact the functionality and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological platforms, and will endanger human lifestyles or overall healthiness. The fast increase in those applied sciences has supplied us with remarkable potential and comfort, and now we have come to depend upon them a growing number of. expertise has diminished society's hazard to many varieties of normal mess ups, yet via its personal vulnerability, it has truly elevated society's probability to area climate. opposed stipulations within the area atmosphere could cause disruption of satellite tv for pc operations, communications, navigation, and electrical strength distribution grids, resulting in numerous socioeconomic losses.
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120000 leagues under the sea, IEEE Spectrum, 50, April 2000. , Radio communication, Proc. IRE, 16, 40, 1928. , The importance of the annual meteoroid streams to spacecraft and their detectors, Adv. , 20, 1513, 1997. , and J. A. M. McDonnell, Meteoroid impacts on spacecraft: sporadics, streams, and the 1999 Leonids, Plant. , 47, 1005, 1999. McCormac, B. , Summary, in Radiation Trapped in the Earth's Magnetic Field, ed. B. M. McCormac, D. Reidel Pub. , Dordrecht, Holland, 887, 1966. Medford, L.
Thomson, G. Siscoe, J. B. Blake, G. Paulikas, A. Vampola, H. C. Koons, and L. J. Zanetti. REFERENCES Atmosphere Water Vapor At frequencies in the Ka band that are planned for high bandwidth space-to-ground applications (as well as for point-to-point communications between ground terminals), water vapor in the neutral atmosphere is the most signifi cant natural phenomenon that can serious affect the signals [Gordon and Morgan, 1993]. It would appear that, in gen eral, the space environment can reasonably be ignored when designing around the limitations imposed by rain and water vapor in the atmosphere.
R. Weissman, The impending appearance of comet Tempel-Tuttle and the Leonid meteors, Icarus, 124, 407, 1996. Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ 07974 USA. J. W. H i r m a n NOAA Space Environment Center Space Environment Center (SEC) is the United States' official source of space weather alerts, warnings, and forecasts. Forecasts are used to support activities that are impacted by space weather such as electric p o w e r transmission, satellite operations, humans in space, navigation, and communication.