An Introduction to Modern Jewish Philosophy by Norbert M. Samuelson

By Norbert M. Samuelson

The booklet is split into 3 sections. the 1st offers a basic ancient evaluate for the Jewish proposal that follows. the second one summarizes the range of uncomplicated varieties of well known, optimistic Jewish dedication within the 20th century. The 3rd and significant part summarizes the elemental considered these smooth Jewish philosophers whose suggestion is technically the simplest and/or the main influential in Jewish highbrow circles. The Jewish philosophers coated contain Spinoza, Mendelssohn, Hermann Cohen, Martin Buber, Franz Rosenzweig, Mordecai Kaplan, and Emil Fackenheim.

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Was a monumental year in Spanish and Jewish history. Christopher Columbus landed in the West Indies and claimed the ''New World'' for Spain. Christian forces had conquered the kingdom of Granada the last vestige of Muslim power in Spain, at the beginning of the year, and Ferdinand of Aragon together with Isabella of Castile expelled the Jews from now-united Roman Catholic kingdom. Five years later, Emanuel I also exiled the Jews from Portugal. From this major settlement of Jewish life and culture west of the Pyrenees, some Jews migrated westward to the New World, but most Jews reestablished their communities to the East.

2 Particularly in Eastern Europe, these techniques of survival proved increasingly ineffective against foreign attacks or pogroms. At no time before the second half of the seventeenth century could it be said that many Jews became disaffected from rabbinic Judaism. Their thoughts and aspirations turned away from the application of God's law for the Jews in this world, to a longing for the coming of the Messiah and the Messianic Age, which would bring this world of pain and evil to a close. The longing for the Messiah is itself a rabbinic theological doctrine, representing the fulfillment of the aspirations of the Jewish people under the Torah.

What is called "practical mysticism" are those teachings in mystical communities which deal with concrete means or training by which the initiate into the mystical community may go beyond the rabbinic community to a direct relationship with God. Most Jewish mystical association tended to be pantheistic, so the direct relationship sought with God was described in terms of a union with or an absorption into the essence of God. 'Pantheism' refers to that view which claims that everything that exits ultimately exists as part of God.

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