By World Health Organization
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Additional resources for AIDS Epidemic Update: December 2004
Population-based surveys, though, can help ﬁll out the picture of the epidemic. Findings from 34 such surveys among mining and manufacturing workers in southern Africa were recently published and offer a suggestive picture of HIV spread among wage-income workers. 7%) among 44 000 workers in Botswana, South Africa and Zambia, respectively. Workers in the mining sector had the highest levels of infection. 6%]). Research has suggested that less skilled workers (including contract workers) in the mining sector are more likely to be migrants (living away from home for extensive periods) and more likely to frequent sex workers.
What is clear is that a considerable number of men in India do have sex with other men. In a householdbased survey in a low-income area of Chennai, India, 6% of men reported sex with other men. These men were over eight times more likely to be infected with HIV than other men in the survey, and 60% more likely to be infected with other sexually transmitted infections. , 2004). For example, in a household study in India, 57% of men reporting sex with other males were married (NACO, 2002). High risk behaviour and sharp rises in HIV HIV prevalence is rising sharply in several places where it stayed low for many years.
One recent serosurvey among adults in ﬁve villages found that close to 1% were HIV-positive (MAP, 2004). Household surveys of young men and women in Jayapura and Merauke show that both young men and women in Papua report far less drug use and far more sexual activity than those in other parts of Indonesia. The data are inconclusive, but they suggest patterns of sexual networking that HIV behind bars Prisons are playing a growing role in Indonesia’s emerging epidemic. In Jakarta’s jails, HIV prevalence started to rise in 1999, two years after it had taken off among drug injectors, reaching 25% in 2002.