By Robert M. Winslow M.D. (auth.), Robert M. Winslow M.D., Kim D. Vandegriff Ph.D., Marcos Intaglietta Ph.D. (eds.)
Each bankruptcy of this quantity is a contribution from a professional within the box, selected through the editors to give a contribution to the 1997 "Current matters in Blood replacement examine and improvement" path given in San Diego, March 17-19. The individuals have been chosen as a result of their services in components which the editors think to be serious to the development of the sector, and which replicate job in "hot" parts of appropriate study. whereas there's a continuity well-liked for the once a year path, every year brings alterations in emphasis and content material. In earlier years, we have been usually unable to supply time for members to give their perspectives and reviews. as a result, this 12 months we inspired dialogue after every one presentation. those classes have been recorded, transcribed, and are published with the chapters herein. We think that the product is especially just about the shooting this year's path in print, and belief readers will take pleasure in analyzing the continually candid and sometimes provocative feedback from the viewers. the associated fee paid for inclusion of the dialogue transcriptions used to be a hold up in e-book. every one writer was once allowed to edit his/her dialogue part in addition to the ultimate model of the chapters sooner than ebook. The adjustments are commonly for grammar, and we attempted, whilst attainable, to not modify the conversational form of those interchanges.
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1996b). We also perfuse single vessels of tumors in these windows (Lichtenbeld et al. 1996) and utilize two acute preparations: liver and mesentery. (3) In vitro methods to assess the deformability. adhesion and permeability of normal and neoplastic cells (Melder et al. 1996, Munn, Melder 48 Jain and Jain 1996, Traykov and Jain 1987), as well as measurements of adhesion molecules' expression in intact monolayers (Munn et al. 1995). g.. in situ hybridization, Southern. Northern and Western blotting) (Yuan et al.
In order to quantitate the degree of brightness at a given time-point, the following method was used. The videotape of each experiment was played back using a recorder connected to a TV monitor and to a computer equipped with a video acquisition card. The image of each Blood Substitutes & the Intestinal Microcirculation 21 focused villus was grabbed so that it could be analyzed using an analog to digital (A-to-D) converter and computer software (NIH-Image). The average intensity of each villus minus the background was determined at each time-point.
1 • ,. I.. 1. Blood velocity as a function of vessel diameter in normal pial vessels (top panel) and a human glioma (U87) xenograft on the pial surface (bottom panel). Note that in normal microcirculation, blood velocity is dependent on vessel diameter, whereas in tumors, there is no such dependence. Furthermore, the blood velocity in tumor vessels is about an order of magnitude lower than in host vessels (Adapted from Yuan et al. 1994b). 50 Jain Based on perfusion rates, four regions can be recognized in a tumor: an avascular, necrotic region, a semi-necrotic region, a stabilized microcirculation region, and an advancing front (Endrich et al.