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Extra resources for A. Philip Randolph, pioneer of the civil rights movement
14 Believing that the black church was a reactionary institution because it 12. Eugene Debs, quoted in Theodore Draper, American Communism and Soviet Russia (New York, 1960), 315 516. See also Philip S. , 1977), especially 25864. 13. Randolph, "Reminiscences," 112, 11415, 121, 123, 15253, 15859, 17175; James Weinstein, The Decline of Socialism in America, 191225 (New York, 1969), 73. 14. Sterling D. Spero and Abram L. Harris, The Black Worker (1931; rpr. New York, 1968), 38789; Dufty, "A Post Portrait," December 29, 1959.
34 The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (BSCP) was formally organized on August 25, 1925, with Randolph at its head.
6 The strategy he devised to help Afro-Americans rise above clientage politics and improve their conditionnonviolent, direct mass actionproved to have enduring influence, thus ensuring Randolph's position in American history. 6. Martin Kilson, "Political Change in the Negro Ghetto, 19001940s," in Nathan I. Huggins, Martin Kilson, and Daniel M. ), Key Issues in the Afro-American Experience (New York, 1971), II, 177. Page 6 I A New-Style Leader Emerges Why should a Negro worker be penalized for being black?